English Notes - Pronouncing verbs ending in -ed (past participles)

Pronunciation of Verbs Ending in -ed

These pronunciation rules are for verbs ending in ed:


The ending -ed is pronounced as an extra syllable /id/, or as /t/ or /d/
at the end of the simple past and past participle forms of verbs.
The pronunciation depends on the final sound of the simple form of the verb:

If the simple form of the verb ends with the sounds / t / or I d /,
then pronounce -ed as an extra syllable /id/:
Verbs

start started
need needed
wait waited
decide    decided

If the simple form ends with the voiceless sounds /f/, /k/, /p/, /s/, /sh/, /ch/, /ks/,
then pronounce -ed as / t /:

Verbs

laugh      laughed    gh =/ f /
wish wished
look looked
watch watched
jump jumped
fax faxed    x = /ks/
slice sliced     c= /s/


If the simple form ends with the voiced sounds
/b/, /g/, /j/, /m/, /n/, /ng/, /l/, /r/, Ithl, /v/, /z/, or with a vowel,
then pronounce -ed as /d/:

Verbs

rob          robbed
call called
brag bragged
order ordered
judge judged
bathe bathed
hum hummed    
rain rained
wave waved
close closed s = /Z/
bang banged
play played

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